Transformations

Transformation means to change. Hence, a geometric transformation would mean to make some changes in any given geometric shape.

There are four main types of transformations: translation, rotation, reflection and dilation. We will look at translations, reflections, and rotations in this post. Dilations are discussed in a separate post.

Translations


Translation, also called a “slide”: moving a shape without rotating or flipping it.

The shape still looks exactly the same, just in a different place. Translations preserve congruency (the image of the shape is the same as the original), and orientation (the way the shape faces) stays the same.

 

Reflections


Reflection is known as a “Flip”

A reflection is a flip over a the mirror line (line of reflection). Reflections preserve congruency (the image of the shape is the same as the original), however orientation (the way the shape faces) changes.

Rotations


Rotation is known as a “Turn”.

When a shape is turned around a fixed point, it is called rotation or turn. The shape may be turned clockwise or counterclockwise about the point. After one complete turn, the shape is back where it started. Rotations preserve congruency (the image of the shape is the same as the original), however orientation (the way the shape faces) changes.

 

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